dr. Nikolas Gaio

Electronic Components, Technology and Materials (ECTM), Department of Microelectronics

PhD thesis (Jul 2019): Organ-on-Silicon
Promotor: Ronald Dekker

Themes: Health and Wellbeing


Nikolas Gaio received the B.S degree in electronic engineering from the Polytechnic University of Milan, Milan, Italy in 2012. In 2011 he was visiting student at Tongji University, Shanghai, China, where he received a B.Eng. in Electronic Information in 2013. In 2013, he joined as guest resercher the Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology (Chinese Academy of Science). In 2015 he received a M.Sc. (cum laude) in Biomedical Engineering at the Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering in TU Delft.

He is currently pursuing a Ph.D. degree at TU Delft in the framework of InForMed project, an European project that aims to bring medical devices to the market. During this experience he collaborated with multiple companies (Philips, MultiChannel system, Ncardia, among others) focusing on improving the TRL of a device for in vitro electrophysiology assays. Furthermore, he is collaborating with multiple biologists from LUMC and Erasmus Medical Center and the Institute for human Organ and Disease Model Technologies (hDMT) in the development of novel Organ-on-Chip devices. He received the Best Student Paper Award at the 2015 IEEE Sensors and the public Poster Award at the ICT Open Conference in 2016.

Nikolas Gaio is the founder of BI/OND (BIOND Solution B.V.). BI/OND provides dynamic cell culture environments to recreate human physiology and pathology for predictive in-vitro assays. For more information about BI/OND business and products visit gobiond.com.


  1. A Microfluidic Cancer-on-Chip Platform Predicts Drug Response Using Organotypic Tumor Slice Culture
    Sanjiban Chakrabarty; William F. Quiros-Solano; Maayke M.P. Kuijten; Ben Haspels; Sandeep Mallya; Calvin Shun Yu Lo; Amr Othman; Cinzia Silvestri; Anja van de Stolpe; Nikolas Gaio; Hanny Odijk; Marieke van de Ven; Corrina M.A. de Ridder; Wytske M. van Weerden; Jos Jonkers and Ronald Dekker; Nitika Taneja; Roland Kanaar; Dik C. van Gent;
    Cancer Research,
    Volume 82, Issue 3, pp. 510-520, 2022. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-21-0799

  2. Smart Multi-Well Plate: an autonomous, modular and scalable OoC platform
    S. Meucci; B. de Wagenaar; A. Bußmann; J. Meents; N. Gaio; R. Monge; R. Klemm; A. Breemen; J. Scheer; T. de Moura; S. Kersjes; M. Mastrangeli;
    In EUROoCS Conference 2022,
    4-5 July 2022.

  3. Monolithic Integration of a Smart Temperature Sensor on a Modular Silicon-based Organ-on-a-chip Device
    Ronaldo Martins da Ponte; Nikolas Gaio; Henk van Zeijl; Sten Vollebregt; Paul Dijkstra; Ronald Dekker; Wouter A. Serdijn; Vasiliki Giagka;
    Sensors and Actuators A: Physical,
    Volume 317, pp. 112439, 2021. DOI: 10.1016/j.sna.2020.112439

  4. Monolithic Integration of a Smart Temperature Sensor on a Modular Silicon-based Organ-on-a-Chip Device
    Martins da Ponte, Ronaldo; Nikolas Gaio; Henk van Zeijl; Sten Vollebregt; Paul Dijkstra; Ronald Dekker; Wouter A. Serdijn; Vasiliki Giagka;
    Sensors and Actuators A: Physical,
    Nov. 21 2020. ISSN 0924-4247.
    Keywords: ... Organs-on-a-chip; Smart temperature sensor; Time-mode domain signal processing; MEMS; CMOS Monolithic Integration; MEMS-Electronics co-fabrication.

    Abstract: ... One of the many applications of organ-on-a-chip (OOC) technology is the study of biological processes in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) during pharmacological drug screening. It is of paramount importance to construct OOCs equipped with highly compact in situ sensors that can accurately monitor, in real time, the extracellular fluid environment and anticipate any vital physiological changes of the culture. In this paper, we report the co-fabrication of a CMOS smart sensor on the same substrate as our silicon-based OOC for real-time in situ temperature measurement of the cell culture. The proposed CMOS circuit is developed to provide the first monolithically integrated in situ smart temperature-sensing system on a micromachined silicon-based OOC device. Measurement results on wafer reveal a resolution of less than ±0.2 °C and a nonlinearity error of less than 0.05% across a temperature range from 30 °C to 40 °C. The sensor's time response is more than 10 times faster than the time constant of the convection-cooling mechanism found for a medium containing 0.4 ml of PBS solution. All in all, this work is the first step towards realising OOCs with seamless integrated CMOS-based sensors capable to measure, in real time, multiple physical quantities found in cell culture experiments. It is expected that the use of commercial foundry CMOS processes may enable OOCs with very large scale of multi-sensing integration and actuation in a closed-loop system manner.


  5. Low-Impedance PEDOT:PSS MEA Integrated in a Stretchable Organ-on-Chip Device
    Affan K. Waafi; Nikolas Gaio; William F. Quiros-Solano; Paul Dijkstra; Pasqualina M. Sarro; Ronald Dekker;
    IEEE Sensors,
    Volume 20, Issue 3, pp. 1150-1157, 2020. DOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2019.2946854

  6. Metal and Polymeric Strain Gauges for Si-Based, Monolithically Fabricated Organs-on-Chips
    Quirós-Solano, William F.; Gaio, Nikolas; Silvestri, Cinzia; Pandraud, Gregory; Dekker, Ronald; Sarro, Pasqualina M.;
    Volume 10, Issue 8, pp. 536, Aug 2019. DOI: 10.3390/mi10080536

  7. Organ-on-silicon
    Nikolas Gaio;
    PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology, 2019.

  8. Microfabricated tuneable and transferable porous PDMS membranes for Organs-on-Chips
    W. F. Quirós-Solano; N. Gaio; O. M. J. A. Stassen; Y. B. Arik; C. Silvestri; N. C. A. Van Engeland; A. Van der Meer; R. Passier; C. M. Sahlgren; C. V. C. Bouten; A. van den Berg; R. Dekker; P. M. Sarro;
    Scientific Reports,
    pp. 13524, 2018. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-31912-6

  9. A novel method to transfer porous PDMS membranes for high throughput Organ-on-Chip and Lab-on-Chip assembly
    William.F Quirós-Solano; Nikolas Gaio; Cinzia Silvestri; Oscar M. J. A. Arik; Yusuf, B. Stassen; Andries van der Meer; Carlijn V.C. Bouten; Albert van den Berg; Ronald Dekker; P.M. Sarro;
    In 31th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS),
    pp. 318-321, 2018.

  10. A Multi Well Plate Organ-on-chip (Ooc) Device For In-vitro Cell Culture Stimulation And Monitoring
    N. Gaio; A. Waafi; M.L.H. Vlaming; E. Boschman; P. Dijkstra; P. Nacken; S.R. Braam; C. Boucsein; P.M. Sarro; R. Dekker;
    In 31th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS),

  11. Versatile 3D Stretchable Micro-Environment for Organ-on-Chip Devices Fabricated with Standard Silicon Technology
    Nikolas Gaio; William Quiros Solano;
    Patent, WO2018021906, 2018.

  12. Polymeric strain gauges as pressure sensor for microfabricated organ-on-chips
    W.F. Quiros Solano; N. Gaio; C. Silvestri; G. Pandraud; P.M. Sarro;
    In Proc.of Transducers 2017, the 19th International Conference on Solid-state Sensors, Actuators, and Microsystems,
    pp. 1296-1299, 2017.

  13. Cytostretch, an Organ-on-Chip Platform
    Gaio, N.; van Meer, B.; Quiros Solano, W.; Bergers, L.; van de Stolpe, A.; Mummery, C.; Sarro, P.M.; Dekker, R.;
    Volume 7, Issue 7, pp. 120, 2016.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of an Upside-down Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Microelectrode array (MEA)
    Gaio, N.; Silvestri, C.; van Meer, B.; Vollebregt, S.; Mummery, C.; Dekker, R.;
    IEEE Sensors Journal,
    Volume 16, Issue 24, pp. 8685, 2016.

  15. Upside-down Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Micro-electrode Array (MEA)
    N. Gaio; B. van Meer; C. Silvestri; Saeed Khoshfetrat Pakazad; S. Vollebregt; C.L. Mummery; R. Dekker;
    In IEEE Sensors Conference,

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Last updated: 3 May 2023