MSc Eland

PhD student
Electronic Instrumentation (EI), Department of Microelectronics

Expertise: Energy-Efficient Data Converters


Efraïm was born in Vlissingen, The Netherlands in 1992. He received his B.Sc degree in Electrical Engineering from Delft University of Technology in 2017. In May 2017, he started pursuing his M.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering, specialised in Microelectronics. In September 2018 he started his internsip/thesis at NXP Semiconductors, after which he graduated in October 2019 with a master thesis work on energy-efficient zoom ADCs for audio applications. Efraïm is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree at the Electronic Instrumentation Laboratory, working on energy-efficient, high-speed data converters in collaboration with NXP Semiconductors.


  1. A 440-μW, 109.8-dB DR, 106.5-dB SNDR Discrete-Time Zoom ADC With a 20-kHz BW
    E. Eland; S. Karmakar; B. Gönen; R. van Veldhoven; K. A. A. Makinwa;
    IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits,
    Volume 56, pp. 1207-1215, January 2021. DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2020.3044896
    Abstract: ... This article describes a discrete-time zoom analog-to-digital converter (ADC) intended for audio applications. It uses a coarse 5-bit SAR ADC in tandem with a fine third-order delta–sigma modulator ( ΔΣM ) to efficiently obtain a high dynamic range. To minimize its over-sampling ratio (OSR) and, thus, its digital power consumption, the modulator employs a 2-bit quantizer and a loop filter notch. In addition, an extra feed-forward path minimizes the leakage of the SAR ADC’s quantization noise into the audio band. The prototype ADC occupies 0.27 mm 2 in a 0.16- μm technology. It achieves 109.8-dB DR, 106.5-dB SNDR, and 107.5-dB SNR in a 20-kHz bandwidth while dissipating 440 μW . It also achieves state-of-the-art energy efficiency, as demonstrated by a Schreier FoM of 186.4 dB and an SNDR FoM of 183.6 dB.

  2. A 440μW, 109.8dB DR, 106.5dB SNDR Discrete-Time Zoom ADC with a 20kHz BW
    E. Eland; S. Karmakar; B. Gönen; R. van Veldhoven; K. Makinwa;
    In Dig. Techn. Paper IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits (VLSI),
    June 2020. DOI: 10.1109/VLSICircuits18222.2020.9162856.

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Last updated: 17 Aug 2022